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培根散文第20章:Of Counsel 论谏议

时间: 01-24     手机版

20 of counsel 论谏议

the greatest trust between man and man is the trust of giving counsel. for in other confidences, men commit the parts of life; their lands, their goods, their children, their credit, some particular affair, but to such as they make their counsellors they commit the whole: by how much the more, they are obliged to all faith and integrity.
人与人之间最大的信任就是关于进言的信任。因为在别的信托之中人们不过是把生活底一部分委托于人,如田地、产业、子女、信用,某项个别事务是也;但是对那些他们认为是言官或诤友的人,他们是把生活底全部都委托了;由此可见这些有言责的人是更应当如何严守信实与坚贞也。

the wisest princes need not think it any diminution to their greatness, or derogation to their sufficiency, to rely upon counsel. god himself is not without: but hath made it one of the great names of his blessed son; the counsellor. solomon hath pronounced, that in counsel is stability. things will have their first or second agitation; if they be not tossed upon the arguments of counsel they will be tossed upon the waves of fortune; and be full of inconstancy, doing, and undoing, like the reeling of a drunken man. solomon's son found the force of counsel as his father saw the necessity of it
人君中极聪明者也不必以为借助于言论就有损于他们底伟大或有伤于他们底能名。连上帝自己也是不能少它的,他并且把进言这件事定为他底圣嗣底尊号之一:就是“进言者”或“规劝者”。所罗门曾经说过:“安全是在忠言之中的”。凡事必有初动与次动;若不在言论底辩驳上颠簸,必将在幸运底波涛上颠簸,并且要有始无终,成败不定,好象一个醉人底蹒跚一样。所罗门底儿子发见了言论底力量,就如同他父亲发见了言论底必要一样。

for the beloved kingdom of god was first rent and broken by ill counsel; upon which counsel there are set, for our instruction, the two marks, whereby bad counsel is for ever best discerned: that it was young counsel for the persons;and violent counsel for the matter.
因为上帝所最宠爱的那个国家是最先由邪说分裂破坏的;这邪说有两个特点,这两个特点可说是天意特赋予它,以教训世人如何可以永远看出邪恶的言论来的;就是,这种言论,在人底方面,是年青人底言论;在事底方面,是主张暴力的言论。

the ancient times do set forth in figure both the incorporation and inseparable conjunction of counsel with kings; and the wise and politic use of counsel by kings: the one, in that they say, jupiter did many metis, which signifieth counsel: whereby they intend, that sovereignty is married to counsel: the other, in that which followeth, which was thus: they say after jupiter was married to metis, she conceived by him, and was with child; but jupiter suffered her not to stay till she brought forth, but ate her up; whereby he became himself with child, and was delivered of pallas armed, out of his head. which monstrous fable contained! a secret of empire; how kings are to make use of their counsel of state.
帝王与言论之一体相关而不可分离以及帝王当如何善用言论之道,这二者都由古人以譬喻说出了。其一,古人说久辟特曾娶米娣司,这位米娣司就是言论,古人借这个寓言表示君权是与言论一体的。其二就是这故事底下文,古人说久辟特娶了米娣司之后,她怀了孕。但是久辟特不肯让她等到生产的时候,反之,他把她吞入腹内,因此他自己竟怀孕在身,后来就由头中产生了全身披挂的帕拉斯。这个荒唐的故事暗寓君道底秘密;是说人君应当如何利用朝议的。

that first, they ought to refer matters unto them, which is the first begetting or impregnation; but when they are elaborate, moulded, and shaped, in the womb of their counsel, and grow ripe, and ready to be brought forth; that then, they suffer not their counsel to go through with the resolution, and direction, as if it depended on them; but take the matter back into their own hands, and make it appear to the world, that the decrees, and final directions (which, because they come forth with prudence, and power, are resembled to pallas armed) proceeded from themselves: and not only from their authority, but (the more to add reputation to themselves) from their head, and device.
第一,为帝王者应当把事务交付朝议,这就好象授胎使孕一样;但是当这些事务在议论底腹中已受?营,捏搓,造形之后,那时为帝王者就不让朝议去决断并支配这些事务,好象非仗着他们不可似的;反之,却要把事务拿回到自己底手里,并且要使世人看来那号令及最后的决断(这些号令及决断,因为它们发出的时候是审慎而且有力的,因此就可譬全副武装的帕拉斯)是从他们自己出的,并且不仅是从他们底威权,而且是从他们底脑筋及智谋而来的(这样就更可以增加他们自己底名望了)。

 

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