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虚拟语气2

时间: 01-18     手机版

  

  虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)这一语法项目是各类英语考试中心测试的重点之一。虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,用来表示说话人所说的话并不是事实,而是一种假设、愿望、怀疑或推测。判断是真实条件句还是非真实条件句。只有在非真实条件句中才使用虚拟语气。通过句子意思,看假设的条件是否能够实现,能够实现是真实条件句,不能使用虚拟语气;假设的条件不能实现则是非真实条件句,要用虚拟语气.判断这个假设是与哪个事实相反。通常有三种情况:①与过去事实相反。②与现在事实相反。③与将来事实可能相反

  I: 最基本的虚拟语气句型:

  1. 虚拟现在时表示与现在事实相反的假设,其if 从句的谓语形式用动词的过去式(be 一般用were),主句用would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形。If places were a like, there would be little need for geographers.如果各个地方都一样,就不需要地理学家了。

  2. 虚拟过去时是表示与过去事实相反的假设,if 从句的谓语形式用过去完成时即had+过去分词,主句用would / should / could / might + have +过去分词。If he had known your address yesterday,he would have telephoned you.

  3. 虚拟将来时是表示对将来实现的可能性很小的或不确定的假设。If从句的谓语形式用一般过去式或用were to / should +动词原形,主句用would / should/could/ might +动词原形。If he were to leave today, he would get there by Friday

  4. 省略if 采用倒装语序的条件句。有时可以把含有助动词、情态动词、be或have的虚拟条件句中的连词if省去,而将had , should, were 等词提到主语之前,即用倒装结构。Had he worked harder, he would have got through the exams.Were he to leave today, he would get there by Friday.Were I in your place, I wouldn’t do that.

  5. 有时虚拟条件句并没来if 从句表示出来,而是用介词短语(otherwise, or, without, but for)、上下文或其它方式来表示。We didn't know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him.Without you help, I wouldn’t have achieved so much.But for your help, I would not have succeeded.

  II: 虚拟语气在从句中用should的情况:

  1. 在建议,要求,命令,想法后的动词后的从句里, 用should + 动词原形, should 可以省略. 如 advise, agree, command, decide, demand, determine, grant, indicate, insist, order, prefer, propose, request, require, stipulate, suggest, urge, vote.常考到的是: suggest, advise, demand, require, propose, insist, order, request.

  His doctor suggested that he (should) take short leave of absence.

  The author proposed that TV (should) be turned off at least one hour every day.

  2. 在建议,要求,命令,想法后的名词后的从句里, 用should + 动词原形, should可以省略. 如 advice, agreement, command, decision, decree, demand, determination, indication, insistence, order, preference, proposal, request, requirement, stipulation etc.

  It was Bill’s suggestion that everyone (should) have a map.

  His suggestion was that everyone (should) have a map.

  He gave us a suggestion that everyone (should) have a map.

  3. 在It is/was +形容词后的that 从句中用should的结构, should 可以省略. 这类形容词常见的有: advisable, anxious, compulsory, crucial, desirable, eager, essential, fitting, imperative(绝对必要), impossible, improper, important, natural, necessary, obligatory, possible, preferable, probable, recommended, urgent, vital etc.

  It‘s natural that she (should) do so.

  It is essential that we (should) tell her the news.

  4. 在 lest 和 for fear that(以免),in case(以防)从句中用should, should 可以省略.

  She walked quietly lest she (should) wake up her roommates.

  Have your gun ready in case we should need it.

  III: wish 后的 that 从句中:

  1. 表示现在或将来的愿望,从句中过去式.

  I wish I knew his address.

  I wish I were young.

  2. 表示过去没有实现或不可能实现的愿望, 从句用过去完成式或would, could, might + have + 过去分词.

  I wish you had written to him.

  I wish I could have slept longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.

  3. 如果将wish改成wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变.

  4. 如果that 从句中用would , 一般表示 对现状不满或希望未来有所改变或请求

  I wish he would answer my letter.

  I wish prices would come down.

  I wish you would help me.

  I wish you would stop asking silly questions.

  IV: 在 It’s about/ high/ first(second, third etc)time 后的that 从句中,用过去式.表示“该是做什么的时候了”

  It is about time you were in bed.

  It is high time we left.

  It is the first time I came here.

  V: 在would rather, would sooner, would just as soon 后的that从句中,用过去式或过去完成式,表示”宁愿做什么”

  I would rather he came tomorrow than today.

  John would rather that she had not gone to the party yesterday evening.

  VI: 在if only 感叹句中,谓语动词与wish宾语从句的虚拟形式相同.

  If only he didn’t drive so fast!(现在)

  If only she had asked someone’s advice.(过去)

  If only the rain would stop.(将来)

  VII: 在as if / as though 从句中,表示和现在事实相反或对现在情况有所怀疑,用过去式;表示过去想象中的动作或情况, 用过去完成式.

  He speaks as if he were on the spot.

  She spoke to me as if I were deaf.

  This device operated as though it had been repaired.

  注: 1. 在 as if / as though 句中, 如果有可能成为事实, 用陈述语气.

  He looks as if he is going to be ill.

  2. 在 insist 后的从句中, 如果是坚持自己, 用陈述语气, 坚持别人做什么事情, 用虚拟语气.

  She insists that she is right.

  She insisted that I should finish the work at once.

 

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