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Unit one Friendship

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Unit one Friendship
Direct speech and indirect speech
(直接引语和间接引语)
一. 基本概念
I直接引语变为间接引语
1)、直接引语为陈述句
2)、直接引语为祈使句
3)、直接引语为疑问句
4)、直接引语为感叹句
II
1、直接引语和间接引语都属于宾语从句
2、直接引语和间接引语的概念
(1)直接引语:一字不改地引述别人的话
(2)间接引语:用说话人自己的话转述别人的话
二.变换类型
1.直接引语为陈述句
直接引语为陈述句,用that引导(口语中可以省略)。引述动词有:say, tell等。
陈述句变间接引语要注意:1、人称的变化2、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化3、时态的变化4、人称的变化 。
一般的规则:一随主,二随宾,三不变
例如:The teacher said, “John, you must bring your book to the class. ”
1> 第三者说:The teacher told John that he must bring his book to the class.
2> 别人对约翰说:The teacher said that you must bring your book to the class.
3> 约翰自己说:The teacher said that I must bring my book to the class.
I指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化
1〉指示代词的变化
this---- that these----those
2〉时间状语的变化
now---- then ago---- before today----that day yesterday----the day before; the previous day tomorrow----the next day; the following day the day before yesterday----two days before the day after tomorrow----two days later next week/month, etc.---- the next week/month, etc. last week/month, etc.---- the week/month before
3〉地点状语的变化
here----there
4〉动词的变化
come----go
注:在当地转述时,here不变为there,come不变为go.
在当天转述时,yesterday, tomorrow等时间状语也不变。
II 时态的变化(1)
1〉主句为现在或将来时态时,间接引语的时态不变。
E.g. A. He says, “I’m tired.”
He says he is tired.
B. He has said to me, “I’m tired.”
He has said to me he is tired.
C. He will say, “The boy was lazy.”
He will tell you that the boy was lazy.
2、主句为过去时态时,直接引语一般作相应的变化,这就叫所谓的“时态的呼应”。
1)、一般现在时变为一般过去时。
e.g. He said, “I’m sorry.”
He said he was sorry.
2)现在进行时变为过去进行时。
e.g. She said, “He’s waiting.”
She said he was waiting.
3)现在完成时变为过去完成时。
e.g. He said, “You haven’t changed much.”
He said that I hadn‘t changed much.
4)一般过去时变为过去完成时。
e.g. He said, “The man came at six.”
He said that the man had come at six.
5)一般将来时变为过去将来时。
e.g. She said, “I will do it after class.”
She said that she would do it after class.
6)过去完成时不变。
e.g. He said, “I had finished my homework.”
He said that he had finished his homework.
注:直接引语如果是客观真理,变为间接引语时时态不变。
e.g. The teacher told us, “The earth moves around the sun.”
The teacher told us that the earth moves around the sun.
III 时态的变化(2)
1)含情态动词的一般现在时变为情态动词的一般过去时。
e.g. She said, “He can swim very well.”
She said that he could swim very well.

注:1)如果直接引语的情态动词是一般过去时,间接引语还是用情态动词的过去一般时。
e.g. She said, “He could swim very well.”
She said that he could swim very well.
2)有些情态动词如must, ought to, need, had better等只有一种形式,那么在间接引语中形式不变。
e.g. He said, “I must study hard.”
He said that he must study hard.
2、直接引语为祈使句
直接引语为祈使句,变为间接引语时将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式。引述动词有:tell, ask, order等。它的否定是在to前加not。它没有时态的变化。其他的变化和直接引语是陈述句的情况相同。
e.g. I said to her, “Please give me a glass of water.”
I asked her to give me a glass of water.
She said to him, “Come at five o’clock.”
She told him to come at five o’clock.
He said, “Don’t make so much noise, boys.”
He told the boys not to make so much noise.
3、直接引语为疑问句(1)
直接引语为疑问句,变为间接引语时语序与一般从句相同,用陈述句的语序,be, have等助动词皆放在主语之后。引述动词常用say, ask, wonder, inquire等。直接引语为陈述句变为间接引语应作各种变化的要求也同样使用。
1)直接引语为一般疑问句时,由whether或if引导。
e.g. He said to us, “Are you going away today?”
He asked to us whether we were going away that day.
She said, “Is he your brother?”
She asked if he was my brother.
2) 直接引语为特殊疑问句时,其关联词用相应的疑问代词或疑问副词。
e.g. She asked, “Who will help me finish the job?”
She asked who would help her finish the job.
He asked, “What have you done?”
He asked what I had done.
3)直接引语为选择疑问句,变为间接引语时应用whether…or…。
e.g. “Do you like tea or coffee?” she asked me.
She asked me whether I like tea or coffee.
4、直接引语为感叹句
直接引语为感叹句,变为间接引语时,引述动词有tell, exclaim等。其他的变化和直接引语为陈述句时的变化相同。
e.g. “What a brave boy you are!” she told him.
She told him what a brave boy he was.
有时间接引语可用that引导。
e.g. He said, “How foolish I have been!”
He said how foolish he had been.
He said that he had been very foolish.
点击高考
(一)高考试题题选与分析
1.[1985] Can you tell me____?
A. who is that gentleman B. that gentleman is who
C. who that gentleman D. whom is that gentleman
2. [1986] Can you tell me _____the railway station?
A. how I can get to B. how can I get to
C. where I can get to D. where can I get to
3. [1998] I asked my lawyer _____say in court.
A. what I should B. what should I
C. how I should D. how should I
题析:这三题的答案分别是:C、A、A。这三题的选项部分(即间接引语部分)都是含有疑问的意思,本来应是特殊疑问句形式,但当疑问句改为间接引语时,须将疑问句的语序改为陈述句的语序。
归纳:
(1)用自己的话转述别人的话,叫做间接引语。间接引语一般都构成宾语从句。
(2)特殊疑问句变间接引语,首先把疑问句语序变为陈述句语序,去掉问号,然后用原句的wh—疑问词引导。
(3)陈述句由直接引语转换为间接引语,首先将陈述句转换为由不得that引导的宾语从句。引语动词常用say, tell等。
Eg. 直接引语:“I enjoy playing chess”
间接引语:She said that she enjoyed playing chess.
(4)一般疑问句由直接引语变为间接引语时,首先将疑问句词序变为陈述句词序,去掉问号,然后在句子前面加whether或if。引语动词可用ask , wonder, want to know, don’t know ,be not sure , be puzzled 等,但不能用say, tell。
Eg.直接引语:“Are you feeling tired?”
间接引语:The teacher asked me whether I was feeling tired .
4. [1988] They want to know _____do to help us .
A. what can they B. what they can
C. how they can D. how can they
5. [1991] No one can be sure ____in a million years.
A. what man will look like B. what will man look like .
C. man will look like what D. what look will man like
6. [1987] They have no idea at all________.
A. where he has gone . B. where did he go
C. which place he has gone D. where has he gone.
题析:
(1)第4题选B。首先要选择间接引语部分是陈述词序的选项;第二要考虑疑问词的正确使用,从句子结构来看,间接引语部分的谓语do缺少了宾语,因此应选择连接词what充当do的宾语。
(2)第5题选A。第一个原因与上题一样;第二点关于疑问词的考虑,因为间接引语部分的谓语will look like 的like是介词,而介词必须带有宾语,因此使用连接词what充当介词like 的宾语。
(3)第6题选A。第一个原因与第4题一样;至于疑问词的选择,因为go是一个不及物动词,如果要表示“去哪里”,就要用“go+副词”或“go+介词+名词/代词”结构,因此如果选C的话,gone后应加介词to。故使用连接词where。
归纳:
(5)在做单项选择题时,除了考虑间接引语部分需用陈述词序外,还应考虑如何选择正确的连接词。用哪一个连接词要取决于句子表达的意思以及间接引语部分所缺少的成分。
7.[1990] Can you make sure _____the gold ring ?
A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put
C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put
题析:
这题的答案选C。第一点考虑的是间接引语部分需使用陈述词序,故排除B和D。第二考虑的是时态问题。因为主句使用了一般现在时,如果选择A,使用过去完成时,在这个句子并没有过去时间作参照点,因此不能使用过去完成时。
归纳:
(6)间接引语部分的时态必须与主句的时态相协调。
(7)如果直接引语所在的句中的谓语动词是现在时或将来时态,改为间接引语时,时态不变。
Eg. He says “I didn’t go to school today.”
He says that he didn’t go to school that day .
(8)如果直接引语讲述的是客观真理现象,改为间接引语时,其一般现在时不变。
Eg. The teacher said ,“The earth is round .”
The teacher said that the earth is round .
(9)如果说话时间与引述时间不同,即引述某人过去说过的话,则动词时态要作相应的变化,即动词时态一律向过去推移一步。
Eg. A. 直接引语:“it’s snowing.”
间接引语:He told me that it was snowing.
B. 直接引语:“I have studied English for ten years.”
间接引语:He said that he had studied English for ten years.
C.直接引语:“I am looking forward to seeing Tom.”
间接引语: He told me he was looking forward to seeing Tom.
D.直接引语:“We will miss the bus .”
间接引语:She was afraid they would miss the bus .
(10)直接引语中的虚拟语气,时态保持不变。
Eg. “I suggest that the meeting be put off till next week.” he said.
He suggested that the meeting be put off till the next week.
(11)当直接引语中有确定的过去时间状语时,谓语动词的一般过去时不必变为过去完成时,因为在这种情况下,“过去的过去”已经不言而明。
Eg. “I was born in 1950”.
He said was born in 1950.
8.[1996] The patient was warned _______oily food after the operation.
A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat
D. not eating
题析:
这一题的答案选C。这句话是间接引语的另一种形式,即祈使句的间接引语。祈使句改为间接引语时,把祈使句中的动词原形改为动词不定式,如果是否定祈使句,就在动词不定式前加not,因此选择C。
归纳:
(12)直接引语如果是祈使句,变间接引语时,要使用“谓+宾+不定式”结构,引述动词常用ask , tell ,warn , advise, order 等。如果该祈使句的说话者采用的动词为said, 就将其改为told , asked 或 ordered等,如果祈使句中有please 一词,改为间接引语时,要将please去掉。

(二) 练习
1.My father suggested _____ a jo6 in a hospital.
A. that I get B. that I got C. me to get .
D. that my getting
2. Can you tell me _____the 28th Olympic Games____?
A. when will , be held . B. when , will be held
C. when will be , held D. when ,will hold
3.Mr Brown is said _____a new novel.
A. to write B. to have been written
C. to be written D. to have written
4.He demanded that every student _____there at once.
A. went B. must go C. goes D. go
5. That man insisted that he ____ there.
A. should send B. would be sent C. be sent D. sent
6. I want to know ______.
A.what city does she come from
B.from what city does she come .
C.from which city does she come .
D. what city she comes from .
7.“Were you able to borrow Helen’s camera ?”
“No, she said ______lend it to anyone .”
A.she’ll rather not . B. she wouldn’t rather
C. she’d rather not D. she doesn’t rather
8. I wonder if she ____us , but I think if she ____us we will be able to complete the take ahead of time .
A. helps ; helps B. will help ; has helped .
C. helps ; will help D. will help ; helps
9. He said that he _____there for three years .
A. has studied B. had studied
C. studied D. was studying
10. Can you tell me _____ ? I haven’t seen you for years .
A. where have you gone B. where have you been
C. where you have been D. where you have gone
11. Ask him how much ________.
A. did it cost B. cost it
c. it cost D. it costed
12.“Do me a favour, please.” The teacher said .
The teacher asked us to ________.
A . do him a favour B. do me a favour
C. do a favour to her D. do a favour for me .
13.“Don’t be late again ”,the teacher said to me .
The teacher asked me __________ .
A. not to be late again B. no to be late again
C. not to be late more D. not to be late any longer.
14. I asked her ______me the book .
A. to give B. giving C. be given D. gave
15.“Make sure the door is locked ” Mother said .
Mother told me _____.
A . make sure the door is locked .
B.make sure the door was locked .
C.to make sure the door is locked .
D.to make sure the door was locked.

答案: 1、A 2、 B 3、D 4、D 5、C 6、D
7、C 8、D 9、B 10、C 11、 C 12、A 13、A 14、A 15、D。

 

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