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不定式可用作哪些状语

时间: 01-29     手机版

从句法上看,不定式在句子中可以用作主语、宾语、定语、状语、补语等,其中用作状语是不定式所有用法中最重要的用法之一,同时也是英语考试的重要考点。本文专门为大家归纳不定式作状语的用法,帮助大家理清思路,搞清用法。

先提醒一下,在不定式用作状语的所有用法中,用作目的状语是最重要的(几乎每年都有所考查),其次是用作结果状语(尤其要注意only to do sth这类表示意外结果的用法),用作条件状语也要适当引起注意,而用作方式状语和原因状语则相对考得较少。

一、用作目的状语

不定式用作目的状语属不定式的常见用法,也是英语考试的一个高频考点。如:

________, you need to give all you have and try your best.

A. Being a winner B. To be a winner

C. Be a winner D. Having been a winner

此题答案为B。不定式用于句首表示目的(即用作目的状语)。句意为:要想获胜,你必面要倾其所有,全力以赴。

不定式用作目的状语有两个可能的位置,一是在句首,二是在句末。一般说来,用于句首属于强调性用法,即强调动词的目的。如:

To avoid any delay please phone your order direct. 为免延误, 请直接打电话预订。

To keep themselves awake they sat on the floor and told each other stories. 为了不至于睡着,他们坐在地板上轮流着讲故事。

To trace the origins of the Irish problem, we have to go back over three hundred years. 要探讨爱尔兰问题的起因就要追溯到三百多年以前。

Firemen had to break the door down to reach the people trapped inside. 为了抢救困在屋里的人,消防人员不得不破门而入。

有时为了特别强调目的状语,可以在不定式之前加上in order或so as,即构成in order to do sth和so as to do sth结构。如:

She arrived early in order to get a good seat. 她到得很早,图的就是弄个好座位。

I left a message so as to be sure of contacting her. 我留下一张便条以便与她取得联系。

二、用作结果状语

不定式用作结果状语通常放在句末,一般不放在句首。如:

He returned home to find his wife waiting for him. 他回到家发现他的妻子在等他。

He woke (up) to find himself alone in the house. 他一觉醒来发现房子里只剩下他一个人了。

请注意下列句子中的so…as to…, such... as to…,enough to…, only to…以及too...to…等结构中的不定式也表结果:

The house is so high and narrow as to resemble a tower. 这房子又高又窄,像一座塔。

It was such aloud noise as to wake everybody in the house. 声音这么大,房子里的每个人都给吵醒了。

Is this bridge strong enough to support heavy lorries? 这座桥禁得住重型卡车通行吗?

I arrived at the shop only to find I’d left all my money at home. 我到商店却发现钱全落在家里了。

As a conductor he is too experienced to mind what the critics say. 他是一位经验非常丰富的指挥家,根本不会在乎评论家的意见。

特别要注意only to do sth这类结果状语,它表示的往往是一种出乎意外的结果。它曾一直是英语考试的一个重要考点,尽管今年没有出现这类考题,但在往年的试题中它是较受青睐的。如:

He hurried to the booking office only ___B___ that all the tickets had been sold out.

A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told

三、用作条件状语

不定式用作条件状语也有两个可能的位置,一是在句首,二是在句末。如:

You would make a great mistake to accept his offer. 你要是接受他的建议,你就犯了大错误。

To look at him you’d never think he was a successful businessman. 若看他的外貌,谁也想不到他是个事业有成的商人。

To hear her talk, you’d think she was made of money. 听她谈话的口气,你会觉得她浑身都是钱。

这类不定式通常可用if从句来改写。如:

To order a vehicle, you have to pay a deposit.= If you want to order a vehicle, you have to pay a deposit. 要想订购一辆汽车,你必须交付押金。

To get into university you have to pass a number of examinations.=If you want to get into university you have to pass a number of examinations. 如果你想上大学,就必须通过一系列考试。

To join the club you have to be put up by an existing member.= If you want to join the club you have to be put up by an existing member. 要想加入俱乐部必须有一位会员做介绍人。

四、用作原因状语

不定式用作原因状语的情形主要用于某些“be+形容词+不定式”结构。如:

He was glad to be home again. 他又回到家里,感到很高兴。

We’re proud to be young people of st1:country-region w:st="on">China. 作为中国青年我们感到自豪。

She wept to see him in such a terrible state. 她看到他这种可怕的样子就哭了。

五、用作方式状语

不定式用作方式状语的情形比较少见,主要用于as if to do sth这类结构。如:

He opened his mouth as if to say something. 他张开嘴,好像要说什么

She lifts his hand as if to lead him somewhere. 她牵起他的手,像要把他带到某个地方去。

Smiling pleasantly, the stranger turned as if to speak to me. 那个陌生人面带愉悦的笑容,转身向我,似乎想对我说话。

Steve opened his mouth as if to speak, but stopped talking even before he had started. 史蒂夫张开口仿佛要说话,但是还没有说出口又停住了。

 

【更多相关内容】

1、不定式进行式的两种用法

2、不定式和现在分词作结果状语的区别

3、关于现在分词短语being…用作后置定语

4、接不定式与动名词意义相同的动词

5、“get+过去分词”结构的用法

6、考查 have sth done 的一道语法难题

7、be probable习惯上不与不定式结构连用

8、不定式和动名词作主语与表语比较

9、过去分词作宾补的三种类型

10、for sb to do sth用作状语

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